More than one-third of all enzymes catalyse the oxidation or reduction of a substrate and are therefore classed as oxidoreductases or redox enzymes. The, often complex, redox chemistry involved here is made possible by surprisingly few redox-active cofactors. Of these, flavin nucleotides (FAD and FMN) and haem groups are arguably the most significant. The P450 cytochromes (P450s) and nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) represent a very large and immensely important group of enzymes, which utilize both of these cofactors.

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