The liver can be subjected to many damaging insults, usually from toxins, viral infections, immune or metabolic diseases, during its lifetime. Normal restoration of liver tissue occurs via division of mature functional hepatocytes. In addition, a liver-stem-cell compartment, lying deep within the intrahepatic biliary tree, can be activated during severe or iterative stress. Recent studies have suggested that the bone marrow (BM) may also contribute to liver regeneration, although these observations remain controversial.

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