Biological evolution -- descent with modification -- became generally accepted in the scientific community in the same fashion as all other major theories, i.e. it survived repeated testing against research data. Creationists, especially creationists who support the notion of ‘intelligent design’, are so desperate for this kind of secular credibility that they will trumpet any quote, citation, or scientist that can be interpreted or misinterpreted as authoritative dissent from the mainstream evolutionary theory. This occurs whether or not the cited authority is actually dissenting, or is actually an authority. In an almost automaton-like fashion, creationists compile collections of such ‘authorities’ and deploy them in an attempt to convince school boards, teachers, students, and eventually judges that there is scientific ‘controversy’ over evolution.

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