2009 is a special year as it is the 200th anniversary of the birth of Charles Darwin and 150 years since the first publication of On the Origin of Species, which rocked science and society. This article is written as a ‘Letter to Darwin’ and attempts to define and discuss some of the biological discoveries in which he would surely have had a great interest. In fact, because of the difficulties associated with explaining the processes, structures, terminologies and technologies, this is the second letter written to Darwin by the author. Readers interested in a longer initial letter that reviews relevant material up to 1960 are referred to www.biochemistry.org/education.

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