Antibodies and the complement proteins of our immune system are large highly glycosylated and flexible multidomain proteins whose solution structures and protein–protein interactions are intricate to unravel. Controversies and speculations abound in this field. The intact proteins are hard to crystallize, and far too big for NMR structural determinations. Thus alternative structural approaches based on neutron scattering and others such as X-ray scattering, constrained modelling and analytical ultracentrifugation become vital to tackle these proteins. The commissioning of the £145 million second target station (TS-2) project at ISIS represents a major advance that will offer much higher neutron beam fluxes and permit more dilute proteins to be studied and more ambitious experiments to be planned. Recently completed antibody projects at ISIS illustrate our present capabilities and provide tantalizing views of what will be achievable. ISIS has already made invaluable contributions to biochemistry, and will continue to do so with TS-2.

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