All organisms require coenzyme A (CoA) for intermediary metabolism. CoA ushers organic acid substrates, particularly fatty acids, through multiple reactions that supply energy, building blocks for membrane structure, protein modifications that alter subcellular interactions or activities and secondary metabolite production. Acetyl-CoA is an allosteric regulator of key metabolic activities that direct carbon flux. CoA synthesis from pantothenate is dynamic and responsive to nutritional and environmental conditions, with the goal of cell homoeostasis during proliferation and in support of specialized tissue functions. Pantothenate is the unique precursor of CoA, and the pantothenate kinase (PanK) family of enzymes exerts control over the amount of CoA produced. The PanKs are regulated co-ordinately by several mechanisms, and the complexity of CoA regulation is currently unfolding. Little is known about the mechanisms of CoA degradation that work together with biosynthesis to maintain a threshold level of cellular CoA.

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