We modern humans may be able to control our environment and protect ourselves from the adverse consequences of disease, but our evolution never stops. The selective pressures that affect the numbers of viable offspring carrying novel DNA changes alter in time and space. Changes in lifestyle in the last 10 000 years have led to major changes in diet, making new dietary components potential selective agents. One of the best examples of this comes from the genetically determined variation in our ability to digest the lactose in milk.

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