Over the last decade, a rapid growth in the field of micro(mi)RNA research has been evident. Profiles of miRNAs have been shown to reflect pathological conditions and have been implicated as potential biomarkers in the diagnosis and evaluation of human diseases. In this article, an overview of miRNA discovery and biogenesis is provided. Recent advances in using circulating miRNA as biomarkers in human diseases are discussed, along with the challenges researchers are facing in miRNA profiling and future diagnostic prospects.

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