Individual characteristics, such as age, biological sex, race, fat mass and genetic factors, have a major impact on physiological and pathological processes. Consequently, individuals can respond differently to the development and manifestation of disease, treatment, outcome and the recovery process. In fact, there are major differences in the function of the biological system of men and women, who do not differ only on the basis of their reproductive system. Sex chromosomes and sex hormones, together with other factors, interact in a complex manner, thereby leading to sex-specific protective or maladaptive mechanisms. In this context, studying the role and effects of biological sex is crucial for the identification of novel therapeutic targets, whose therapeutic exploitation will promote a personalized and improved treatment and care according to individual needs. The vast influence of biological sex is recognized in many diseases1. Here, we focus on hypertension, due to its high prevalence and importance, since it is the primary risk factor for premature death and disability worldwide.

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