Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne Bunyavirus that currently affects livestock and humans, causing a wide spectrum of symptoms. RVFV was confined to the African continent for many decades and spread to the Arabian Peninsula in recent history. The potential for widespread emergence into new regions and populations is possible and likely, as many outbreaks are driven by human behaviour and livestock trade. While many imported human cases have been detected, establishment of the virus in new geographic areas will depend on amplification in dense animal populations. Western and European countries have identified a substantial risk for the emergence of RVFV, as agricultural industries constitute a large percentage of the global economy.

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