The cell relies on an intricate system of molecular highways and motors to transport proteins, organelles and other vesicular cargoes to their proper locations. Microtubules, long filaments that form a network throughout the cell, act as highways. The motor proteins kinesin and dynein associate with cargoes and transport them along microtubules. Rather than simply acting as passive tracks, microtubules contain signals that regulate kinesin and dynein to target cargoes to specific locations in the cell. These signals include the organization of the microtubule network, chemical modifications that alter the microtubule surface properties and mechanics, and microtubuleassociated proteins that modulate the motility of motor proteins and microtubule polymerization.

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