The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 1906 was shared by two scientists that set the basis for understanding how the brain works: Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal were awarded the honour “in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system”. Yet, contrary to what usually happens in these situations, one of them was wrong and tried to sabotage the theories of the other one, refusing to admit his mistakes even when he gave his acceptance speech. How did Santiago Ramón y Cajal, a humble Spanish doctor, manage to upstage the legendary Italian pathologist and change forever the way we see the brain?

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