Establishing a therapy to replace adult teeth attracts considerable attention in the field of dental research because, once adult teeth are lost due to caries (tooth decay), periodontal disease or trauma, they are not shed or regrown. Modern dentists have usually used several prosthetic procedures such as artificial dentition, tooth transplantation and dental implants to replace lost teeth. However, these are still not complete procedures because several unsolved issues remain; for instance, when a denture is applied, the support from the oral cavity is insufficient for mastication. The long-term efficacy of tooth transplantation and dental implants, as an alternative to the use of dentures, is not clear. What is the future technology?