Cannabis sativa is well known for its production of psychoactive chemicals and medicinal products, but it also has huge potential to be a multipurpose crop. Cultivated for biofuel, building materials and textiles, Cannabis has a high carbon sequestration rate and is bound to be a key player in future sustainable agriculture. The distinct applications of Cannabis are directly or indirectly connected to flowering and require different flowering time phenotypes. As an annual short-day plant, Cannabis usually flowers in autumn when days get shorter after an initial vegetative growth period. However, differences in latitude, temperature and other environmental factors require the development of new Cannabis cultivars adapted to local climatic conditions. As such, a comprehensive understanding of the physiological and genetic basis of flowering time is crucial to integrating Cannabis into modern agriculture, benefiting global sustainability efforts.