1. The Na(+)-plus-K(+)-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase [(Na(+),K(+))-ATPase] of microsomal preparations from ox brain was inactivated or diminished in activity by exposure to 2-8m-urea. Similar concentrations of urea diminished the turbidity of the suspensions. 2. Low concentrations (about 2.5mm) of NaATP with the urea gave partial or complete protection of the ATPase, without altering the concomitant change in turbidity. Some protection of the (Na(+),K(+))-ATPase was afforded by tris ATP, but the greatest protection was found with NaATP and in its presence the change in (Na(+),K(+))-ATPase with 3m-urea included a phase in which activity was enhanced by 40%. 3. The protective effect was specific to NaATP: KATP, NaADP, NaAMP and sodium pyrophosphate were without protective effect and in some cases they augmented the action of urea. 4. The turbidity of cerebral microsomal suspensions was diminished also by ultrasonic irradiation; NaATP did not alter this change. After ultrasonic treatment up to 55% of the protein and of the ATPase activity were no longer deposited by centrifugal forces of 4.5x10(6)g-min. 5. Ultrasonic treatment and centrifugation could be carried out with little or no loss of ATPase and ammonium sulphate flocculation of the supernatant then afforded in the first material precipitated a three- to five-fold enrichment of (Na(+),K(+))-ATPase activity. 6. Sodium borohydride and dimethyl sulphoxide also diminished the turbidity of the microsomal fraction but enrichment of the ATPase was not effected by these reagents; ten other compounds were without action on the ATPase. 7. Acetyl phosphate was hydrolysed by the microsomal preparation and this activity was increased by added K(+). Acetyl-phosphatase activity persisted in the ultrasonically treated and ammonium sulphate-fractionated preparations, which were more exacting in their requirements for K(+). 8. The findings are discussed in relation to the mechanism of the (Na(+),K(+))-ATPase.

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