1. When Bacillus subtilis was grown in a medium in which sporulation occurred well-defined morphological changes were seen in thin sections of the cells. 2. Over a period of 7·5hr. beginning 2hr. after the initiation of sporulation the following major stages were observed: axial nuclear-filament formation, spore-septum formation, release of the fore-spore within the cell, development of the cortex around the fore-spore, the laying down of the spore coat and the completion of the corrugated spore coat before release of the spore from the mother cell. 3. The appearance of refractile bodies and 2,6-dipicolinic acid and the development of heat-resistance began between 5 and 6·5hr. after initiation of sporulation. 4. The appearance of 2,6-dipicolinic acid and the onset of refractility appeared to coincide with a diminution of electron density in the spore core and cortex. 5. Heat-resistance was associated with the terminal stage, the completion of the spore coat. 6. The spore coat was composed of an inner and an outer layer, each of which consisted of three or four electron-dense laminae. 7. Serial sections through cells at an early stage of sporulation showed that the membranes of each spore septum were always continuous with the membranes of a mesosome, which was itself in close contact with the bacterial or spore nucleoid. 8. These changes were correlated with biochemical events occurring during sporulation.

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