1. The distribution of individual phospholipids was determined in hen brain and compared with that in sciatic nerve obtained in a previous investigation. Sciatic nerve is more enriched in the myelinic phospholipids ethanolamine plasmalogen, phosphatidylserine and sphingomyelin, but it contains relatively less triphosphoinositide, and much less diphosphoinositide, than the brain. 2. The course of incorporation of intraperitoneally injected 32P into the acid-soluble phosphorus, phosphoinositides and total phospholipids of hen brain and sciatic nerve was followed. Although the maximum specific radioactivity in sciatic nerve of acid-soluble phosphorus is 4·5 times, and that of triphosphoinositide six times, that in the brain, the relative rate of triphosphoinositide phosphorus synthesis per gram of brain is three times that in sciatic nerve. 3. Administration of the demyelinating agent tri-o-cresyl phosphate to hens has no significant effect on the amounts or the rate of 32P incorporation into the total phospholipids of the sciatic nerve. However, the rate of incorporation of 32P into triphosphoinositide, although not its concentration, is raised from the first day after administration of the drug and remains thus 13 and 23 days later. 4. The incorporation of 32P into polyphosphoinositides of hen brain slices in vitro was studied. The recovery of triphosphoinositide from the slices is markedly increased in the presence of EDTA, although the rate of incorporation of 32P is unaffected. The incorporation of 32P is dependent on the presence of Mg2+ and Ca2+ in the medium, and is decreased when Na+ is replaced with K+ or cholinium ions.

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