1. Attempts were made to define the role of phosphofructokinase in glycolytic control and the factors regulating the concentration of l-glycerol 3-phosphate in rat epididymal fat pads incubated in vitro. 2. Glycolysis rates were altered by anoxia or by additions of insulin, adrenaline or both to the incubation medium, and the changes in rate were related to changes in the steady-state concentrations of hexose phosphates, adenine nucleotides, l-glycerol 3-phosphate and citrate in the whole tissue. Measurements were also made of the lactate/pyruvate concentration ratio in the medium after incubation. 3. The mass-action ratios of phosphofructokinase, calculated from the whole-tissue concentrations of products and substrates, were less than 0·1% of the value of the ratio at pH7·4 at equilibrium. 4. Only in the presence of adrenaline could the observed stimulation of glycolytic flux be related to a possible activation of phosphofructokinase since, in this situation, the concentration of one substrate, fructose 6-phosphate, was not altered and the concentration of the other, ATP, was decreased. Increased glycolytic flux in the presence of insulin may be explained by an observed increase in the concentration of the substrate, fructose 6-phosphate. Under anaerobic conditions, glycolytic flux was decreased but this did not appear to be the result of inhibition of phosphofructokinase, since the concentrations of both substrates, fructose 6-phosphate and ATP, were decreased. The changes in glycolytic flux with insulin and anoxia may be secondary to changes in the rate of glucose uptake. 5. Changes in l-glycerol 3-phosphate concentration appear to be related both to changes in the concentration of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and to changes in the NADH/NAD+ concentration ratio in the cytoplasm. They do not seem to be related directly to alterations in glycolytic rate.

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