1. Glutathione peroxidase activity in the livers of sham-operated female rats was about 60% higher than in similarly treated male rats. The value in the ovariectomized female was about the same as that in the castrated or sham-operated male. 2. Glutathione peroxidase activity changed during the oestrous cycle. The highest value was in oestrus, and was about 50% higher than the lowest activity, which was found in dioestrus. The activity in proestrus and in metoestrus was respectively about 20 and 30% higher than in dioestrus. 3. In the pregnant female 1 or 2 days before term, glutathione peroxidase activity was about 20% higher than that in the female in oestrus. 4. Subcutaneous implants of both oestra-diol and progesterone in the gonadectomized rats increased the glutathione peroxidase activity approximately to the values found in the female at oestrus. 5. The rate of aerobic oxidation of GSH in the female rat liver was about 80% higher than in the male and about 110% higher than in the gonadectomized rats. Treatment of gonadectomized rats with subcutaneous implants of oestradiol and of progesterone increased the rate of oxidation of GSH by about 100%. 6. In the presence of azide the rate of GSH oxidation in the male and in the female was respectively about 3·5- and 2·1-fold that in the absence of azide. In castrated or ovariectomized rats the increase due to the presence of azide was about 2·4-fold. In the gonadectomized rats treated with oestradiol or progesterone the rate of GSH oxidation in the presence of azide was about 2·2-fold that in its absence. 7. The rate of lipid peroxidation in female was 15–30-fold that in male or in gonadectomized rats. Treatment of the gonadectomized rats with oestradiol or with progesterone increased the rate of lipid peroxidation up to values that were even higher than in the female. In the presence of GSH the formation of malonaldehyde from peroxides was virtually eliminated. 8. The results suggest that the sex-linked differences in glutathione peroxidase activity, in the rate of GSH oxidation and in the rate of lipid peroxidation are due to the female sex hormones. 9. It is suggested that both the catalase activity and the rate of hydrogen peroxide formation are higher in the male than in the female. 10. Sex-linked changes in glutathione peroxidase, in the rate of GSH oxidation and in the rate of lipid peroxide formation are discussed in relation to the metabolism of oestrogens in the liver and also to the possible nature of those sex-linked changes.

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