1. The methods for the assay of choline acetyltransferase were based on the reaction between labelled acetyl-CoA and unlabelled choline to give labelled acetylcholine. 2. Both synthetic acetyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA formed from sodium [1−14C]acetate or sodium [3H]acetate by incubation with CoA, ATP, Mg2+ and extract from acetone-dried pigeon liver were used. 3. [1−14C]Acetylcholine was isolated by extraction with ketonic sodium tetraphenylboron. 4. [3H]Acetylcholine was precipitated with sodium tetraphenylboron to remove a ketone-soluble contaminant in sodium [3H]acetate and then extracted with ketonic sodium tetraphenylboron. 5. The values of choline acetyltransferase activity obtained in the presence of sodium cyanide or EDTA and synthetic acetyl-CoA were similar to those obtained with acetyl-CoA synthesized in situ. 6. The assay of acetylcholinesterase was based on the formation of labelled acetate from labelled acetylcholine. The labelled acetylcholine could be quantitatively removed from the acetate by extraction with ketonic sodium tetraphenylboron. 7. The methods were tested with samples from central and peripheral nervous tissues and purified enzymes. 8. The blank values for choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase corresponded to the activities in 20ng. and 5ng. of brain tissue respectively.

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