An extract was prepared from rabbit reticulocyte ribosomes after treatment with potassium chloride as described by Miller, Hamada, Yang, Cohen & Schweet (1967). This extract has been shown to convert monoribosomes into polyribosomes during protein synthesis in vitro (Cohen, 1968). The nature of this extract was studied in greater detail. Centrifugation of the extract through a sucrose density gradient separated the activity into a fast-sedimenting fraction. The two fractions were shown to have different functions in stimulating cell-free protein synthesis and their active components were shown to be protein or partly protein in nature. Each fraction was analysed by electrophoresis and in the analytical ultracentrifuge. It was concluded that the active component in the fast-sedimenting fraction had a sedimentation coefficient of 15·5s and that of the slow-sedimenting fraction 10·5s.

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