1. Rat kidney-cortex slices incubated with d-malate alone formed very little glucose. d-Malate, however, augmented gluconeogenesis from l-lactate and inhibited gluconeogenesis from pyruvate and l-malate. 2. d-Malate had little effect on the rate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle with or without other substrates added. 3. d-Malate inhibited the activity of the l-malate dehydrogenase in a high-speed-supernatant fraction from kidney cortex. 4. It was concluded that d-malate inhibited either the operation of the cytoplasmic l-malate dehydrogenase or malate outflow from the mitochondria in the intact kidney-cortex cell. This supports the hypothesis of Lardy, Paetkau & Walter (1965) and Krebs, Gascoyne & Notton (1967) on the role of malate as carrier for carbon and reducing equivalents in gluconeogenesis. 5. Gluconeogenesis from l-lactate in kidney-cortex slices was strongly inhibited by a low concentration (0.1mm) of amino-oxyacetate, whereas glucose formation from pyruvate, malate, aspartate and several other compounds was only slightly affected. 6. High concentrations of l-aspartate largely reversed the inhibition of gluconeogenesis from l-lactate caused by amino-oxyacetate. 7. Amino-oxyacetate inhibited strongly the glutamate–oxaloacetate transaminase in the 30000g supernatant fraction of a kidney-cortex homogenate. The presence of l-aspartate decreased the inhibition of the transaminase by amino-oxyacetate. 8. Detritiation of l-[2-3H]aspartate was inhibited by 90% during an incubation of kidney-cortex slices with l-lactate and amino-oxyacetate. 9. Low concentrations (10μm) of artificial electron acceptors such as Methylene Blue and phenazine methosulphate abolished most of the inhibition of gluconeogenesis from l-lactate by amino-oxyacetate. This is interpreted as an activation of net malate outflow from the mitochondria by-passing the inhibited transfer of oxaloacetate. 10. These findings support the concept that transamination to aspartate is involved in the transfer of oxaloacetate from mitochondria to cytosol required in gluconeogenesis from l-lactate.

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