1. Various types of nuclear preparations, with different ratios of neuronal to glial nuclei, were isolated from guinea-pig cerebral grey matter and ox cerebral grey matter and white matter. Conditions appropriate for the separate assay of RNA and poly A formation were described. Comparative rates of RNA and poly A formation were studied in cerebral and liver nuclei. 2. RNA polymerase activity per nucleus is higher in neuronal nuclei than in glial nuclei. In liver nuclei, the activity is much lower than in cerebral nuclei. The physical relationship between RNA polymerase and deoxyribonucleoprotein seems to differ in neuronal, glial and liver nuclei. 3. Poly A polymerase activity in liver nuclei is selectively activated by Mn2+ and inhibited by GTP, CTP and UTP. On a DNA basis, the activity in an aggregate enzyme is the same as in intact nuclei. Poly A polymerase activity per nucleus is much higher in liver nuclei than in neuronal nuclei. Glial nuclei show an intermediate activity. 4. It is suggested that, in neuronal nuclei, the synthesis of RNA is more prominent than that of poly A under conditions where both polymers are formed simultaneously. This contrasts with liver nuclei, where more poly A is made than RNA. 5. In neuronal nuclei, the rate of CTP incorporation is much higher than in glial and liver nuclei. This incorporation is most probably due to poly C synthesis.

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