1. The effluxes of 42K+ and 36Cl from isolated fat-cells from the rat were studied under a variety of conditions known to affect the metabolism of the cells. 2. 42K+ efflux from isolated fat cells was increased in a Na+-free–high-K+ medium and decreased in a K+-free medium. The existence of K+ exchange diffusion across the fat-cell membrane is suggested. 3. 36Cl efflux from isolated fat-cells was decreased when the Cl component of the wash medium was replaced by acetate. The basal 36Cl efflux is suggested to be partly by Cl exchange diffusion and partly in company with a univalent cation. 4. A variety of lipolytic stimuli, adrenaline, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, N-6,O-2′-dibutyryladenosine cyclic 3′:5′-monophosphate and theophylline, increased 42K+ efflux from isolated fat-cells. The adrenaline stimulation was biphasic; an initial, rapid and transient increase in 42K+ loss from the fat-cells was followed by a slower, more prolonged, increase in 42K+ efflux. The initial phase was inhibited by phentolamine but not by propranolol. 5. Insulin increased 42K+ efflux only after preincubation with the cells.

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