1. The total yield of fatty acids from the whole envelopes was markedly higher than that obtained from the ordinary cell walls. In both samples the major fatty acids were C16 and C18 acids. 2. The whole envelopes contained C18 acids and long-chain (C19–C26) fatty acids, in a higher proportion than did the ordinary cell walls. Fifteen fatty acids with more than 18 carbon atoms were identified, among which 2-hydroxy-C26:0 and C26:0 acids predominated. 3. A complex sphingolipid containing inositol, phosphorus and mannose was isolated from the whole cell envelopes. The main fatty acids of this lipid were 2-hydroxy-C26:0 and C26:0 acids. It was concluded that this sphingolipid is present both in the ordinary cell wall and in the plasma membrane of baker's yeast. 4. The neutral lipids amounted to over 50% and the glycerophosphatides to about 30% of the total fatty acid content of the whole envelope. The major fatty acids in these lipids were C16:1, C18:1 and C16:0 acids. The proportion of fatty acids with more than 18 carbon atoms was lowest in the neutral lipids, whereas the neutral glycolipids contained the highest percentage of these fatty acids. Acidic glycolipids amounted to 14% of the total fatty acid content of the whole envelope. The presence of a cerebroside sulphate in this lipid fraction was demonstrated, whereas the high content of 2-hydroxy-C26:0 acid found is caused by the complex inositol- and mannose-containing sphingolipid.

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