1. An assay has been developed with sufficient sensitivity for determination of the adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate diesterase activity in islets of Langerhans, and has been used to investigate the response of the enzyme to various agents which are known to affect insulin release. 2. The subcellular distribution of the enzyme in islets of Langerhans prepared from guinea-pig pancreas was investigated and over 70% of the activity present in the original homogenate was recovered in the supernatant fraction. 3. Gel filtration of the activity present in the supernatant fraction on Sephadex G-200 gave a single peak of activity with an apparent molecular weight of 200000. The phosphodiesterase activity in the peak fraction showed two apparent Km values for adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) of 3μm and 30μm, suggesting the presence of two activities. The pH optimum of the activity with the low Km value was 8.7. 4. Theophylline, caffeine, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (SC-2964), glibenclamide, tolbutamide, xylitol and leucine were inhibitors of the activity with the low Km value; imidazole and arginine stimulated the activity, and glucose and diazoxide were without significant effect. 5. It is suggested that the agents theophylline, caffeine, SC-2964, glibenclamide, tolbutamide, leucine and imidazole may alter the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP in islets of Langerhans by affecting the cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity in islet cells and in this way may affect insulin release.

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