1. The activities of tri-, di- and mono-glyceride lipase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase were measured in homogenates of a variety of muscles. These activities were used to estimate the rate of utilization of glycerides and fatty acids by muscle. In muscles whose estimated rates of fat utilization can be compared with rates calculated for the intact muscle from such information as O2 uptake, there is reasonable agreement between the estimated and calculated rates. 2. In all muscles investigated the maximum rates of hydrolysis of glycerides increase in the order triglyceride, diglyceride, monoglyceride. The activity of diglyceride lipase is highest in the flight muscles of insects such as the locust, waterbug and some moths and is lowest in the flight muscles of flies, bees and the wasp. These results are consistent with the utilization of diglyceride as a fuel for some insect flight muscles. 3. In many muscles from both vertebrates and invertebrates the activity of glycerol kinase is similar to that of lipase. It is concluded that in these muscles the metabolic role of glycerol kinase is the removal of glycerol produced during lipolysis. However, in some insect flight muscles the activity of glycerol kinase is much greater than that of lipase, which suggests a different role for glycerol kinase in these muscles.

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