1. Aldolase was selected as a suitable marker for following the androgenic regulation of mRNA synthesis in the prostate gland. 2. Antibodies raised in rabbits against crystalline prostate aldolase were used to monitor the synthesis of this androgen-induced enzyme after hormonal stimulation of castrated animals, by using procedures in vivo and in vitro for the translation of prostate poly(A)-rich mRNA. 3. After androgenic stimulation in vivo the poly(A)-rich mRNA was isolated from the prostate gland and other tissues of castrated rats, and added to a protein-synthesizing system in vitro derived from Krebs II ascites-tumour cells. By using this approach it was found that androgens regulate the synthesis of aldolase mRNA in a highly tissue-specific manner. Stimulation of aldolase mRNA synthesis reached a maximum after 8h of androgenic treatment and then declined. 4. The androgenic control of aldolase mRNA synthesis was also investigated in vivo. After treatment of castrated animals with various steroids in vivo [35S]methionine was injected directly into the prostate gland, and labelled aldolase was selectively precipitated from isolated polyribosomes with anti-aldolase serum. The regulation of aldolase mRNA synthesis in the prostate gland was stringently steroid-specific and could only be evoked by androgens. After a single injection of testosterone, aldolase synthesis reached a maximum after 16h of hormonal stimulation and then declined. 5. Although androgens exert significant control over transcriptional processes in the prostate gland, and appear to regulate the synthesis of aldolase mRNA de novo, the possibility exists for additional means of control at the translational level of aldolase synthesis. The results are discussed in the context of the overall mechanism of action of androgens.

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