1. The intranuclear distribution of cholecalciferol and its metabolites was studied in the intestine of rachitic chicks. 2. At high doses of cholecalciferol the nuclei contain the vitamin and its 25-hydroxy metabolite, but over 80% of this is localized on the nuclear membranes. The hormone, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, is found within the cell nuclei irrespective of the intake of cholecalciferol, but significant amounts could not be found with chromatin isolated free of nuclear membranes. 3. 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol is associated in the nucleus with an acidic protein. Since one of the actions of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol is to control the synthesis of mRNA for calcium-binding protein it was to be expected that the hormone would be bound to chromatin, as with the other steroid hormones. It is suggested that the hormone–receptor complex exists as part of an equilibrium mixture of the complex bound to the DNA and in a free form. 4. A protein extract of nuclei was obtained, which when incubated at 4°C for 1h took up the 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. The nature of this binding was studied. 5. There appear to be two nuclear proteins able to bind the hormone one of which is the intestinal nuclear receptor. The binding sites on this protein are saturable with the hormone, have an association constant of 2×109m-1and show a high chemical specificity for the 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. The number of nuclear binding sites for the hormone provided by this receptor is similar to the maximum intestinal hormone concentration so far observed. Its sedimentation coefficient is 3.5S, and is very close to that observed for the nuclear protein to which is attached the 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol formed in vivo from vitamin D. 6. The cytoplasmic protein has an association constant of 1×109m-1and a sedimentation coefficient of 3.0S, but its relation with the nuclear receptor is not yet clear.

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