1. The uptakes of Pi and serine by whole cells of mutant strains of Escherichia coli K12, grown under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, were studied. 2. Uptake by aerobic cells was low in a ubiquinone-less mutant but normal in two mutant strains unable to couple phosphorylation to electron transport. 3. One of these uncoupled strains, carrying the unc-405 allele, does not form a membrane-bound Mg2+-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase aggregate, and it is concluded that the Mg2+-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase does not serve a structural role in the aerobic active transport of Pi or serine. 4. The other uncoupled strain, in which aerobic uptake is unaffected, carries a mutation in the uncB gene, thus distinguishing this gene from the etc gene, previously shown to be concerned with the coupling of electron transport to active transport. 5. The uptakes of Pi and serine by anaerobic cells were normal in the ubiquinone-less mutant, but defective in both the uncoupled strains. 6. The uptake of Pi and serine by anaerobic cells of the uncB mutant could be increased by the addition of fumarate to the uptake medium. The unc-405 mutant, however, required the addition of fumarate for growth and for uptake. 7. The uncB mutant, unlike the unc-405 mutant, is able to grow anaerobically in a minimal medium with glucose as sole source of carbon. Similarly a strain carrying a mutation in the frd gene, which is the structural gene for the enzyme fumarate reductase, is able to grow anaerobically in a glucose-minimal medium. However, a mutant strain carrying mutations in both the uncB and frd genes resembles the unc-405 mutant in not being able to grow under these conditions.

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