1. Very-low-density (VLD), low-density (LD) and high-density (HD) lipoproteins were isolated by sequential ultracentrifugation from the serum of male guinea pigs fed on a diet containing 3–4% fat. The apoproteins of these lipoproteins (apo-VLD, apo-LD and apo-HD lipoproteins) were studied after delipidation with organic solvents or extraction with tetramethylurea. 2. The major apolipoprotein of LD lipoprotein isolated by gel filtration was found to closely resemble apolipoprotein B of human serum in its chemical and physical properties. Electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel showed that this apoprotein consisted of a number of polypeptides. 3. Tetramethylurea precipitated an apoprotein from guinea-pig serum lipoproteins that is probably the apolipoprotein B-like component. This apoprotein accounted for about 80% of the apo-LD lipoprotein, about 55% of the apo-VLD lipoprotein and about 50% of the apo-HD lipoprotein. 4. The distribution of apolipoproteins soluble in tetramethylurea was determined by densitometric scanning of stained polyacrylamide disc gels. 5. A glycine-rich component of high electrophoretic mobility (band I) and a triplet of soluble apolipoproteins (bands II-IV) were present in both VLD and LD lipoprotein classes. These components constituted a higher proportion of the tetramethylurea-soluble apoproteins of VLD lipoprotein (60–80%) than of LD lipoprotein (40–55%). 6. Small amounts (10–15%) of a component of intermediate mobility, which contained traces of half-cystine, were also present in both VLD and LD lipoproteins. 7. A group of soluble components of basic character (bands VI-X), present as minor components of VLD lipoprotein (10–20%), constituted a major proportion (30–45%) of the soluble apoproteins of LD lipoprotein. Two of these apoproteins were rich in lysine, and two of lower electrophoretic mobility were rich in arginine. 8. The pattern of tetramethylurea-soluble apoproteins in HD lipoprotein was distinguished by the presence of two polypeptides of low electrophoretic mobility as its predominant components. One of these components, band VI, resembled the A-I apolipoprotein of man in both its amino acid profile and in its electrophoretic mobility. The second major component, band VI-B, was rich in lysine and resembled the C-I apolipoprotein of man in amino acid composition. 9. The soluble components of bands I and IX were analogous in physicochemical properties to the R-X1 and R-X2 (high-arginine polypeptide) peptides of human serum lipoproteins respectively.

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