1. The effect of NH4+, Pi and K+ on phosphofructokinase from muscle and nervous tissues of a large number of animals was investigated. The activation of the enzyme from lobster abdominal muscle by NH4+ was increased synergistically by the presence of Pi or SO4(2-). In the absence of K+, NH4+ plus Pi markedly activated phosphofructokinase from all tissues studied. In the presence of 100 mM-K+, NH4+ plus Pi activated phosphofructokinase from nervous tissue and muscle of invertebrates and the enzyme from brain of vertebrates, but there was no effect of NH4+ plus Pi on the enzyme from the muscles of vertebrates. Nonetheless, NH4+ plus Pi increased the activity of vertebrate muscle phosphofructokinase in the presence of 50 mM-K+ at inhibitory concentrations of ATP, i.e. these ions de-inhibited the enzyme. In the absence of NH4+ plus Pi, K+ activated phosphofructokinase from vertebrate tissues at non-inhibitory ATP concentrations, but the effect was less marked with the enzyme from invertebrate tissues. Indeed, high concentrations of K+ (greater than 50 mM) caused inhibition of invertebrate tissue phosphofructokinase. Of the other alkali-metal ions tested, only Rb+ activated phosphofructokinase from lobster abdominal muscle and rat heart muscle. 2. The properties of lobster abdominal-muscle phosphofructokinase were studied in detail. This muscle was chosen as representative of invertebrate muscle because large quantities of tissue could be obtained from one animal and the enzyme was considerably more stable in tissue extracts than in extracts of insect flight muscle. In general, the properties of the enzyme from this tissue were similar to those of the enzyme from many other tissues: ATP concentrations above an optimum value inhibited the enzyme and this inhibition was decreased by raising the fructose 6-phosphate or the AMP concentration. In particular, NH4+ plus Pi activated the enzyme at noninhibitory concentrations of ATP and they also relieved ATP inhibition (see above). 3. It is suggested that increases in the concentration of NH4+ and Pi, under conditions of increased ATP utilization in certain muscles and/or nervous tissue, may play a part in the stimulation of glycolysis through the effects on phosphofructokinase (the effect may be a direct activation and/or a relief of ATP inhibition). Changes in the concentration of NH4+ and Pi are consistent with this theory in nervous tissue and the anaerobic type of muscles. The role of AMP deaminase in production of NH4+ from AMP in these tissues is discussed in relation to the control of glycolysis.

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