1. When rat isolated fat-cells were incubated with fructose and palmitate, insulin significantly stimulated glyceride synthesis as measured by either [14C]fructose incorporation into the glycerol moiety or of [3H]palmitate incorporation into the acyl moiety of tissue glycerides. Under certain conditions the effect of insulin on glyceride synthesis was greater than the effect of insulin on fructose uptake. 2. In the presence of palmitate, insulin slightly stimulated (a) [14C]pyruvate incorporation into glyceride glycerol of fat-cells and (b) 3H2O incorporation into glyceride glycerol of incubated fat-pads. 3. At low extracellular total concentrations of fatty acids (in the presence of albumin), insulin stimulated [14C]fructose, [14C]pyruvate and 3H2O incorporation into fat-cell fatty acids. Increasing the extracellular fatty acid concentration greatly inhibited fatty acid synthesis from these precursors and also greatly decreased the extent of apparent stimulation of fatty acid synthesis by insulin. 4. These results are discussed in relation to the suggestion [A.P. Halestrap & R.M Denton (1974) Biochem. J. 142, 365-377] that the tissue may contain a specific acyl-binding protein which is subject to regulation. It is suggested that an insulin-sensitive enzyme component of the glyceride-synthesis process may play such a role.

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