1. The effect of thyroidectomy on turnover rates of liver, kidney and brain mitochondrial proteins was examined. 2. In the euthyroid state, liver and kidney mitochondria show a synchronous turnover with all protein components showing more or less identical half-lives compared with the whole mitochondria. The brain mitochondrial proteins show asynchronous turnover, the soluble proteins having shorter half-lives. 3. Mitochondrial DNA (m-DNA) of liver and kidney has half-lives comparable with that of whole mitochondria from these tissues. 4. Thyroidectomy results in increased half-lives of liver and kidney mitochondria, with no apparent change in the half-life of brain mitochondria. 5. A detailed investigation of the turnover rates of several protein components revealed a significant decrease in the turnover rates of mitochondrial insoluble proteins from the three tissues under study. 6. The turnover rates of m-DNA of liver and kidney show a parallel decrease. 7. Thus it is apparent that thyroid hormone(s) may have a regulatory role in maintaining the synchrony of turnover of liver and kidney mitochondria in the euthyroid state. Turnover of brain mitochondria may perhaps be regulated by some other factor(s) in addition to thyroid hormone(s). 8. It seems likely that during mitochondrial turnover m-DNA and insoluble proteins may constitute a major unit. 9. The mitochondrial protein contents of the three tissues are not affected by thyroidectomy. 10. No correlation was seen between the turnover rate of mitochondria and cathepsin activity in any of the tissues under study in normal or thyroidectomized animals. 11. On the other hand, mitochondrial proteinase activity shows good correlation with the turnover rates of mitochondria in normal animals, and a parallel decrease in activity comparable with the decreased rates of turnover is observed after thyroidectomy. 12. It is concluded that mitochondrial proteinase activity may play a significant role in their protein turnover.

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