1. The activity of NAD+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase from the radular muscle of the whelk is higher than those in many vertebrate muscles and only slightly lower than in the flight muscles of insects. The enzyme activity from the whelk (Buccinum undatum) is stable for several hours after homogenization of the radular muscle, whereas that from insect flight muscle is very unstable. Consequently, the enzyme from the whelk muscle is suitable for a systematic investigation of the effects of Ca2+ and ADP. 2. The sigmoid response of the enzyme activity to isocitrate concentration is markedly increased by raising the Ca2+ concentration from 0.001 to 10 muM, but it is decreased by ADP. The inhibitory effect of Ca2+ is most pronounced at pH7.1; it is not observed at pH 6.5. Similar effects are observed for the enzyme from the flight muscle of the locust (Schistocerca gregaria) and the water bug (Lethocerus cordofanus). The percentage activation by ADP of the enzyme from either the whelk or the insects is greater at 10 muM-Ca2+, and 50% of the maximum activation is obtained at 0.10 and 0.16 mM-ADP for the enzyme from whelk and locust respectively at this Ca2+ concentration. At 10 muM-Ca2+ in the absence of added ADP, the apparent Km for isocitrate is markedly higher than in other conditions. Ca2+ concentrations of 0.01, 0.1 and 0.2 muM cause 50% inhibition of maximum activity of the enzyme from the muscles of the whelk, locust and water bug respectively. 3. Recent work has indicated that mitochondria may play a complementary role to the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the control of the distribution of Ca2+ in muscle. The opposite effects of Ca2+ on the activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase and mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase from muscle tissue are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in the intracellular distribution of Ca2+ control the activities of these two enzymes in order to stimulate energy production for the contraction process in the muscle. Although both enzymes are mitochondrial, glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase resides on the outer surface of the inner membrane and responds to sarcoplasmic changes in Ca2+ concentration (i.e. an increase during contraction), whereas the isocitrate dehydrogenase resides in the matrix of the mitochondria and responds to intramitochondrial concentrations of Ca2+ (i.e. a decrease during contraction). It is suggested that changes in intramitochondrial Ca2+ concentrations are primarily responsible for regulation of the activity of NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase in order to control energy formation for the contractile process. However, when the muscle is at rest, changes in intramitochondrial concentrations of ADP may regulate energy formation for non-contractile processes.
Effects of calcium ions and adenosine diphosphate on the activities of NAD+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase from the radular muscles of the whelk and flight muscles of insects
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V A. Zammit, E A. Newsholme; Effects of calcium ions and adenosine diphosphate on the activities of NAD+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase from the radular muscles of the whelk and flight muscles of insects. Biochem J 15 March 1976; 154 (3): 677–687. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bj1540677
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