1. A novel component in the respiratory chain of Nitrobacter winogradskyi was identified. This component absorbs maximally at 552.5 nm when in its reduced form, has an Eo' (pH7.0) value of-110mV and undergoes reduction by a mechanism involving the transfer of a single electron. 2. Degrees of reduction of cytochromes c and a1 in electron-transport (ET) particles were monitored during the course of NO2- oxidation, and the effects of ADP together with Pi, oligomycin and of carbonyl cyanide phenylhydrazone were determined. 3. The influences of ionophorous antibiotics, NH4Cl and cyclohexylamine hydrochloride on the reductions of cytochromes c and a1 by NO2- indicate that the flow of reducing equivalents from cytochrome a1 (+350mV) to cytochrome c (+270mV) is facilitated by deltapsi, the electrical component of the protonmotive force. 4. Cytochromes c and a1 in ET particles are reduced by the non-physiological reductant KBH4 in a manner similar to that observed with the physiological reductant NO2-. 5. To account both for the observed cytochrome reductions and for the translocation of H+ ions which accompanies NO2- oxidation, a mechanism is proposed which involves the transfer of a hydride equivalent (H+ plus 2e) inward across the membrane of the ET particle in response to deltapsi.

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