1. Ca2+ (0.4-16 mM) had no detectable action on the agglutination of hen erythrocytes by Sendai virus. 2. Pretreatment of the cells with Ca2+ (0.1-8 mM) in the presence of the bivalent cation ionophore A23187 led, however, to a significant decrease in the subsequent agglutination of the cells by the virus. 3. It thus appears that the entry of Ca2+ into the interior of these cells decreases cellular agglutination by Sendai virus; possible interpretations of this phenomenon are discussed in terms of the movement of intramembranous particles. 4. With a small number of virions, maximum cell fusion by Sendai virus occurred in the presence of EGTA [ethanedioxybis(ethylamine)tetra-acetate]. 5. Virus-induced cell fusion was significantly decreased by Ca2+, even at a concentration of 0.2 mM; it is suggested that this may result from diminished interactions between virus particles and erythrocyte membranes.

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