1. The oxidation of glutamine by kidney-cortex mitochondria from normal and acidotic rats was not inhibited by avenaciolide, which did inhibit glutamate uptake and oxidation. The oxidation of glutamine by these mitochondria was always greater than that of glutamate. Direct measurements of the metabolism of [1-14C]glutamine in the presence of glutamate, and of [1-14C]glutamate in the presence of glutamine, demonstrated that the uptake and metabolism of external glutamate is insufficient to account for the observed rate of glutamine uptake and metabolism. Thus the postulated glutamine/glutamate antiport does not play a quantitatively important role in the metabolism of glutamine by renal mitochondria. 2. Rapid swelling of these mitochondria was observed in iso-osmotic solutions of L-glutamine and L-glutamyl-gamma-monohydroxamate but not in D-glutamine or L-isoglutamine (1-amido-2-aminoglutaric acid). Thus a relatively specific glutamine uniport exists in these mitochondria. 3. The utilization of glutamine was increased about 3-fold in mitochondria from chronically acidotic rats. Thus mitochondrial adaptations play an important part in the renal response to metabolic acidosis.

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