1. Pulmonary surfactant was isolated from rats that had been exposed to chrysotile asbestos dust for from 3 days to 15 weeks. 2. Asbestos-treated rats showed a progressive increase in amounts of surfactant. After 15 weeks, treated animals contained 4 times as much as non-treated. 3. No significant change was seen in the total protein or total fatty acid composition of surfactant with exposure. 4. The increase in surfactant phosphatidylcholine normally seen on maturation of rat lung was accelerated by exposure of animals to asbestos. 5. An increase in the activity of phosphorylcholine glyceride transferase in lung homogenates and free cell populations was found. 6. Lysosomal phospholipase A was relatively unaffected by dust exposure. 7. It is suggested that the increase in surfactant amounts could be due to an increase in its synthesis without a corresponding alteration in its degradation.

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