1. Glucose synthesis from lactate plus pyruvate and from lactate plus alanine was measured in the presence or absence of 1mM-oleate or 2mM-octanoate at low (2mM) or high (8mM) concentrations of NH4Cl. 2. Both fatty acids alone or with 2mM-NH4Cl doubled glucose production from lactate plus pyruvate. Glucose synthesis from lactate plus alanine, in the presence of oleate, was decreased 16% by 2mM-NH4Cl. 3. In the presence of fatty acids, 8mM-NH4Cl decreased gluconeogenesis by 60-65% from both lactate plus pyruvate and lactate plus alanine. This inhibition was correlated with a high accumulation of aspartate and a drastic decrease in 2-oxoglutarate and malate in the cells. 4. In the presence of 2mM- or 8 mM-NH4Cl, oleate and glucogenic precursors, the addition of 2.5mM-ornithine stimulated urea synthesis. 5. This was paralleled by a decrease of 16% in glucose synthesis from lactate plus pyruvate in the presence of 2mM-NH4Cl and had no effect at 8mM-NH4Cl. In the system producing glucose from lactate plus alanine, ornithine completely reversed the inhibition caused by 2mM-NH4Cl and only partly that by 8mM-NH4Cl. 6. Gluconeogenesis from pyruvate was also inhibited by 2mM-NH4Cl in the presence of oleate or ethanol. This way due to the decrease of malate, which is the C4 precursor of glucose in this system. 7. The limitation of gluconeogenesis by 2-oxoglutarate and malate concentrations in the liver cell and the competition for energy between glucose and urea synthesis is discussed.
Interrelations between ureogenesis and gluconeogenesis in isolated hepatocytes. The role of antion transport and the competition for energy
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A B Wojtczak, E I Wałajtys-Rode, M J H Geelen; Interrelations between ureogenesis and gluconeogenesis in isolated hepatocytes. The role of antion transport and the competition for energy. Biochem J 15 February 1978; 170 (2): 379–385. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bj1700379
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