Biochemical and immunochemical techniques were used to probe the changes in composition of the chromatin of differentiating Müllerian ducts. The non-histone protein increases gradually in the left duct and reaches a constant amount at day 15 of incubation, then remains at the same value until after birth. In the regressing right duct, the non-histone protein increases and then decreases. Gel electrophoresis indicated an increased heterogeneity in the composition of the non-histone protein corresponding to Müllerian-duct differentiation. Little variation in quantity and quality of the histone was observed; however, immunochemical assay confirmed the structural change of Müllerian-duct chromatin during development. An antibody against the chromatin of the newborn-chick oviduct was produced in the rabbit. The chromatin of Müllerian ducts from the early embryonic stage showed a small affinity with the antibody; the affinity increased during the late embryonic stages. The affinity was greatly decreased in the regressing right duct. Oestrogen-binding sites were present in the chromatin of the left and right Müllerian ducts during differentiation, with more sites in the left duct than in the right one during the late stages of development. After oestrogen treatment in vivo, the oestrogen-binding sites on the chromatin of both the left and the right ducts were increased, with a greater increase in the left duct than in the right. In the developing left duct the binding sites reach a maximum on day 15 of incubation, and remain constant at that value until birth.

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