1. GPAT (glycerol phosphate acyltransferase) and DHAPAT (dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase) activities were measured both in subcellular fractions prepared from fed rat liver and in whole homogenates prepared from freeze-stopped pieces of liver. 2. GPAT activity in mitochondria differed from the microsomal activity in that it was insensitive to N-ethylmaleimide, had a higher affinity towards the palmitoyl-CoA substrate and showed a different response to changes in hormonal and dietary status. 3. Starvation (48 h) significantly decreased mitochondrial GPAT activity. The ratio of mitochondrial to microsomal activities was also significantly decreased. The microsomal activity was unaffected by starvation, except after adrenalectomy, when it was significantly decreased. Mitochondrial GPAT activity was decreased by adrenalectomy in both fed and starved animals. 4. Acute administration of anti-insulin serum significantly decreased mitochondrial GPAT activity after 60 min without affecting the microsomal activity. 5. A new assay is described for DHAPAT. The subcellular distribution of this enzyme differed from that of GPAT. The highest specific activity of DHAPAT was found in a 23 000 gav. pellet obtained by centrifugation of a post-mitochondrial supernatant. This fraction also contained the highest specific activity of the peroxisomal marker uricase. DHAPAT activity in mitochondrial fractions or in the 23 000 gav. pellet was stimulated by N-ethylmaleimide, whereas that in microsomal fractions was slightly inhibited by this reagent. The GPAT and DHAPAT activities in mitochondrial fractions had a considerably higher affinity for the palmitoyl-CoA substrate. 6. Total liver DHAPAT activity was significantly decreased by starvation (48 h), but was unaffected by administration of anti-insulin serum. 7. The specific activities of GPAT and DHAPAT were lower in non-parenchymal cells compared with parenchymal cells, but the GPAT/DHAPAT ratio was 5–6-fold higher in the parenchymal cells.

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