1. Dried preparations of cell walls from perennial-ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and Italian-ryegrass (L. multiflorum) leaves were suspended in mixtures of carbon tetrachloride with light-petroleum (b.p. 45–50 degrees C) or alcohols and layered on density gradients formed from the same solvents. 2. On centrifugation, the cell walls become distributed throughout a suitably chosen gradient. Fractions corresponding to various regions of the gradient were separated, examined under the microscope and analysed. 3. Cell-wall preparations made from leaf material ground in liquid N2, or in a triple roll mill, showed considerable heterogeneity in particle size, and their behaviour in the density gradient was variable, although there was a general indication that walls derived from vascular bundles were less dense than those from sclerenchyma. 4 Treatment in a vibratory ball mill decreased the size of the particles and produced a more uniform material, but made it impossible to distinguish the origins of the particles. This material behaved more reproducibly in the density gradient. 5. Some fractionations were also made by successive centrifugation in media of increasing relative density. 6. Analyses of the fractions obtained by each method indicated that the less dense had a greater proportion of xylose in the polysaccharide components, and higher contents of acetyl groups and lignin, confirming the close relationship between these components in plant cell walls. 7. The results show that there are differences in polysaccharide composition between the cell-wall types in the grass leaf, the vascular tissue being richer in hemicellulose relative to cellulose than the sclerenchyma.

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