1. Liver from hyper- and hypo-thyroid male fed rats were perfused with whole blood and their metabolism was compared with euthyroid controls. 2. Hyperthyroid livers produced more bile than controls and hypothyroid livers produced less. 3. Glucose output by all livers was similar; glycogen declined only during perfusion of hyperthyroid livers. Lactate uptake increased in hyperthyroid but decreased in hypothyroid livers. These results may be explained by changes in oxidation of carbohydrate rather than in gluconeogenesis. 4. Secretion of triacylglycerol was decreased in hyperthyroid and not changed significantly in hypothyroid livers. 5. Fractional extraction of infused [1-14C]oleate was unaltered. Hyperthyroid livers oxidized more oleate to CO2 and ketone bodies, esterified less and incorporated less into lipoproteins of d less than 1.006. Hypothyroid livers oxidized and esterified oleate to the same extent as controls; their decreased O2 consumption was due to diminished oxidation of other (non-lipid) substrates; 14C-labelled ketone-body formation was increased, but at the expense of 14CO2 production. 6. Lipogenesis (measured with 3H2O) was unaltered in hyperthyroid but was decreased in hypothyroid livers. Incorporation of 3H and 14C into triacylglycerol relative to phospholipid decreased in hyperthyroid and increased in hypothyroid livers. Cholesterol synthesis was similar in all perfusions. 7. During oleate infusion, the cytosolic redox state, as indicated by the perfusate [lactate]/[pyruvate] ratio, was decreased in hyperthyroid and increased in hypothyroid livers. No change in [3-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] was detected. 8. The importance of relating the concentration of plasma non-esterified fatty acids to the interpretation of metabolic data obtained under differing thyroid status is emphasized.

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