Bovine chromaffin-granule ghosts accumulate 45Ca2+ in a temperature- and osmotic-shock-sensitive process; the uptake is saturable, with Km 38 microM and Vmax. 28 nmol/min per mg at 37 degrees C. Entry occurs by exchange with Ca2+ bound to the inner surface of the membrane. It is inhibited non-competitively by Na+, La3+ and Ruthenium Red (Ki 10.7 mM, 7 microM and 2 microM respectively), and competitively by Mg2+ (ki 0.9 mM). Uptake was not stimulated by ATP. Na+ induces Ca2+ efflux; Ca2+ can re-enter the ghosts by a process of Ca2+/Na+ exchange. La3+ inhibits Ca2+ efflux during Ca2+-exchange, and Ca2+ efflux induced by Na+, suggesting that Ca2+ uptake and efflux, and Ca2+/Na+ exchange, are catalysed by the same protein. Na+ enters ghosts during CA2+ efflux, but the kinetics of its entry are not exactly similar to the kinetics of Ca2+ efflux. Initially 1-2 Na+ enter per Ca2+ lost, but at equilibrium 3-4 Na+ have replaced each Ca2+. There is no evidence that either Ca2+ uptake or efflux by Ca2+/Na+ exchange is electrogenic, suggesting that the stoichiometry of exchange is Ca2+/2Na+. This exchange reaction may have a role in depleting cytoplasmic Ca2+ after depolarization-induced Ca2+ entry through the adrenal medulla plasma membrane; there is some evidence that there may be an additional entry mechanism for Na+ across the granule membrane.

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