UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity of neonatal-chick liver or phenobarbital-treated chick-embryo liver catalysed the glucuronidation of 1-naphthol, 4-nitrophenol and 2-aminophenol. Only low transferase activity towards testosterone was detected, and activity towards bilirubin was not detectable. Liver microsomal transferase activity towards the three phenols was increased approx. 20-50-fold by phenobarbital treatment of chick embryos or by transfer of liver cells into tissue culture. A single form of UDP-glucuronyltransferase, which appears to catalyse the glucuronidation of these three phenols, was purified to near homogeneity from phenobarbital-treated chick-embryo liver microsomal fraction for the first time. The use of this purified enzyme as a standard protein facilitated the identification of this protein in chick-embryo liver microsomal fraction. Further, the accumulation of this microsomal protein was observed following phenobarbital treatment of chick embryos and during tissue culture of chick-embryo liver cells. The value of this model system for the study of the induction of UDP-glucuronyltransferase by drugs and hormones is discussed.

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