The hormonal regulation of gluconeogenesis and ureogenesis in isolated rat hepatocytes with 5 mM-proline as precursor was studied, with the following results. (1) The formation of glucose and urea in a 30 min interval were stimulated more by vasopressin than by glucagon, and the effects of the two hormones in combination were additive. (2) The rates of gluconeogenesis during the 30 min were constant under control, glucagon-stimulated and glucagon-plus-vasopressin-stimulated conditions. The stimulated rate in the presence of vasopressin diminished with time; glucagon in combination with vasopressin prevented this diminution, resulting in an additive effect. (3) Coincident with these changes in gluconeogenesis, vasopressin caused a decrease in cell oxoglutarate concentration, which, in contrast with the decrease caused by glucagon, was greater, but not sustained unless glucagon was also present. Changes in cell glutamate concentration similar to those observed for oxoglutarate occurred. (4) The data suggest that activation of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (EC by glucagon and vasopressin by different mechanisms may explain the relative effects of the hormones alone and in combination on gluconeogenesis from proline.

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