The oxidation of L-glutamate and L-glutamine by enterocyte mitochondria was supported by malate. The stimulation of the rate of oxidation of the two amino acids by small amounts of added malate was 93% and 76% respectively. This could not be accounted for by the oxidation of the small amounts of malate added. Amino-oxyacetate added initially inhibited malate-supported oxidation of L-glutamate by 81% and that of L-glutamine by 38%. The inhibition of L-glutamate oxidation was partially reversed by L-glutamine. The dicarboxylate-carrier inhibitor 2-phenylsuccinate inhibited the malate-supported oxidation of both amino acids, but appeared to be slightly stimulatory to L-glutamine oxidation when added initially. The inhibition of L-glutamate oxidation was reversed by L-glutamine. The mitochondrial uncoupler FCCP (carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone) inhibited malate-supported oxidation of L-glutamate by 78% when added initially. The oxidation of L-glutamine was completely inhibited. However, the uncoupler stimulated the oxidation of both amino acids when added finally. Pyruvate inhibited aspartate synthesis when either of these amino acids was the main substrate, alanine being synthesized. There was no effect on O2 uptake. Mitochondria did not swell in KCl solution, but swelled rapidly in water. Mitochondrial swelling in potassium phosphate and potassium acetate solutions was activated by valinomycin and to a lesser extent by the further addition of FCCP. With potassium malate, swelling was mainly activated by phosphate. The swelling of enterocyte mitochondria in potassium glutamate was slow. In glutamine solution, mitochondrial swelling was greater and appeared to be enhanced by the initial presence of small amounts of phosphate.

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