Malonyl-CoA significantly increased the Km for L-carnitine of overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase in liver mitochondria from fed rats. This effect was observed when the molar palmitoyl-CoA/albumin concentration ratio was low (0.125-1.0), but not when it was higher (2.0). In the absence of malonyl-CoA, the Km for L-carnitine increased with increasing palmitoyl-CoA/albumin ratios. Malonyl-CoA did not increase the Km for L-carnitine in liver mitochondria from 24h-starved rats or in heart mitochondria from fed animals. The Km for L-carnitine of the latent form of carnitine palmitoyltransferase was 3-4 times that for the overt form of the enzyme. At low ratios of palmitoyl-CoA/albumin (0.5), the concentration of malonyl-CoA causing a 50% inhibition of overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was decreased by 30% when assays with liver mitochondria from fed rats were performed at 100 microM-instead of 400 microM-carnitine. Such a decrease was not observed with liver mitochondria from starved animals. L-Carnitine displaced [14C]malonyl-CoA from liver mitochondrial binding sites. D-Carnitine was without effect. L-Carnitine did not displace [14C]malonyl-CoA from heart mitochondria. It is concluded that, under appropriate conditions, malonyl-CoA may decrease the effectiveness of L-carnitine as a substrate for the enzyme and that L-carnitine may decrease the effectiveness of malonyl-CoA to regulate the enzyme.

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