Arterial-venous differences for metabolites across liver, kidney and hindquarters were measured in fed or starved, artificially ventilated chickens. The results indicate that the liver takes up amino acids under both conditions. Urate and glucose are released by the liver in both the fed and the starved state. Lactate and amino acids are extracted from blood by the kidneys, and this increases in the starved chicken. Urate is removed from the circulation by the kidney in the fed and starved state and excreted. In the fed bird there is no significant arteriovenous difference of glucose across the kidney, but in the starved state the kidney releases glucose into the circulation. The hindquarters take up glucose in the fed but not in the starved state. The branched-chain amino acids valine and leucine were taken up by the hindquarters in the fed, but not the starved, chicken. Glycerol is released by the hindquarter of fed and starved chickens. In the starved state, alanine and glutamine represent 57% of the amino acids released by the hindquarter. Lactate is released by the hindquarter of starved chickens and represents the major gluconeogenic carbon source released by the hindquarter and taken up by kidney and liver. Although the liver is the major gluconeogenic organ in the starved chicken, the kidney accounts for approx. 30% of the glucose produced.
Interorgan metabolism of amino acids, glucose, lactate, glycerol and uric acid in the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus)
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D A Tinker, J T Brosnan, G R Herzberg; Interorgan metabolism of amino acids, glucose, lactate, glycerol and uric acid in the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). Biochem J 15 December 1986; 240 (3): 829–836. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bj2400829
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